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Post-disturbance logging: What scientists say

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August 1, 2006 Dear Members of Congress: The United States has made great strides by relying on science to inform our decision making. Science helped us travel to the moon; advance medicine and health; and understand the complex web of life on land and in rivers, lakes, and oceans. Science has also opened our eyes to the workings of forests and provided blueprints for federal plans to better protect the abundant natural resources of our public lands.

When we, as scientists, see policies being developed that run counter to the lessons of science, we feel compelled to speak up. Proposed post-disturbance legislation (specifically the Forest Emergency Recovery and Research Act [HR 4200] and the related Forests for Future Generations Act [S. 2079]), crafted as a response to recent fires and other disturbances, is misguided because it distorts or ignores recent scientific advances.

Under the labels of “recovery” and “restoration,” these bills would speed logging and replanting after natural disturbances. Although logging and replanting may seem like a reasonable way to clean up and restore forests after disturbances like wildland fires, such activity would actually slow the natural recovery of forests and of streams and creatures within them.

Many scientist-reviewed studies and syntheses (please see the selected citations appended to this letter) have recently come to this conclusion. For example, no substantive evidence supports the idea that fire-adapted forests might be improved by logging after a fire. In fact, many carefully conducted studies have concluded just the opposite. Most plants and animals in these forests are adapted to periodic fires and other natural disturbances. They have a remarkable way of recovering - literally rising from the ashes - because they have evolved with and even depend upon fire.

We are concerned that HR 4200 and S. 2079 will bind us to land management practices that, perhaps logical in the past, are no longer tenable in the light of recent scientific understanding. Specifically, post-disturbance logging impedes regeneration of forest landscapes when it compacts soils, removes or destroys so-called biological legacies (such as soil organic material, seeds in the soil, large standing and downed trees), damages riparian corridors, introduces or spreads invasive species, causes erosion, delivers sediment to streams from logging roads and steep slopes, degrades water quality, and damages populations of many aquatic species.

In testimony before the House Subcommittee on Resources (November 10, 2005), eminent forest ecologist and University of Washington Professor Jerry Franklin noted that logging dead trees often has greater negative impacts than logging of live trees. He concluded that “timber salvage is most appropriately viewed as a ‘tax’ on ecological recovery.” Beyond those concerns, post-disturbance logging often intensifies the potential severity of future fires by concentrating the slash from logging at or near the ground. Rather than leaving plant material standing - and providing perching, nesting, and feeding sites for wildlife - such logging abruptly moves the material to the ground. Most of this material would naturally fall to the ground, adding important supplies of nutrients and energy to the forest floor and structure in the form of woody debris to stream channels. But this naturally happens over decades, not in the relatively short time associated with a logging operation.

Advocates of post-disturbance logging may argue that this slash can be disposed of with controlled burns and other treatments. Yet such treatments can severely damage underlying soils, imposing other taxes on natural recovery.

One additional tax concerns us. Postfire logging taxes the public treasury. Recent analysis of postfire logging operations after Oregon’s Biscuit fire of 2002 shows that costs of the logging operations exceeded revenue by about $14 million for logging that removed more than 53 million board feet of timber (DellaSala et al. 2006). Science provides the best insight into the real consequences of our policies and actions. Ironically, this legislation is crafted to ignore the science by waiving environmental reviews, reviews that would make use of the scientific knowledge often available only because of expenditures of public funds. Failure to conduct full environmental reviews informed by that science will inevitably lead to ecological and economic harm from post-disturbance logging.

In short, neither ecological benefits nor economic efficiency result from post-disturbance logging. We therefore urge you to defeat these legislative efforts because they will set back forest recovery.

We urge you to work with your fellow lawmakers to craft legislation that will rely on the most up-to-date scientific knowledge to protect the natural resources of the nation’s public lands.

Sincerely,* Isabella A. Abbott, Ph.D. Wilder Professor of Botany, Emerita University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii

Margaret Adam Wildlife Biologist Twentynine Palms, California

Anurag Agrawal Associate Professor Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Cornell University Ithaca, New York

Paul Alaback, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist University of Montana Missoula, Montana Matthew Albrecht Ph.D. Candidate, Forest Ecologist Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University Athens, Ohio

Christopher B. Allen Research Associate, Silviculture School of Renewable Natural Resources Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Baton Rouge, Louisiana

William S. Alverson, Ph.D. Conservation Ecologist, ECP Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois

Richard F. Ambrose, Ph.D. Professor, Environmental Science and Engineering Program University of California Los Angeles, California

Loren Ammerman, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology Angelo State University San Angelo, Texas James P. Amon, Ph.D. Professor, Wetland Biologist Department of Biological Sciences Wright State University Dayton, Ohio

Thomas H. Anderson, Ph.D. Professor, Geology and Planetary Science University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

William D. Anderson, Jr., Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Grice Marine Biological Laboratory College of Charleston Charleston, South Carolina

Robert Angus, Ph.D. Professor of Biology University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama

Joseph E. Armstrong, Ph.D. Professor of Botany Illinois State University Normal, Illinois

Julian D. Avery Avian Ecologist Eastern New Mexico University Portales, New Mexico

Laura Backus Professional Wetland Scientist Wildlands Restoration Volunteers Boulder, Colorado

Ken Bagstad Graduate Research Assistant Ph.D. Program in Natural Resources/Ecological Economics University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont

Dirk V. Baker Ph.D. Candidate Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

Richard G. Baker, Ph. D. Professor Emeritus Department of Geoscience University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa

Richard H. Baker, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory University of Florida Vero Beach, Florida

William L. Baker, Ph.D. Department of Geography University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming

Bruce G. Baldwin, Ph.D. Professor, Integrative Biology Curator, Jepson Herbarium University of California Berkeley, California

Andy Baltensperger M.S. Candidate Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Mark Bamberger, Ph.D. Professor, Geology and Environmental Sciences Miami University, The Union Institute and University, and Capital University Ohio

Raymond Barbehenn, Ph.D. Associate Research Scientist Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan

Shannon Barber-Meyer Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California

Keith Barnes Ecologist Boise State University Boise, Idaho Linda Sue Barnes, Ph.D. Professor, Biology (specialty Botany) Methodist College Fayetteville, North Carolina

Frank Barnwell, Ph.D. Professor, Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota

James Barron, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology Department of Biological and Physical Sciences Montana State University - Billings Billings, Montana

Paul E. Bartelt, Ph.D. Department of Biology Waldorf College Forest City, Iowa

Andrew M. Barton, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist Associate Professor of Biology University of Maine at Farmington Farmington, Maine

Joe Bartoszek Environmental Specialist Division of Surface Water, Water Quality Unit Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Dayton, Ohio

Carol J. Baskauf, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Austin Peay State University Clarksville, Tennessee Gordon Becker, M.S. Senior Scientist Center for Ecosystem Management and Restoration Oakland, California

Peter Bednekoff, D.Phil. Associate Professor of Biology Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, Michigan

James Beets Chair, Marine Science Department University of Hawaii-Hilo Hilo, Hawaii

Paul Beier, Ph.D. Professor, School of Forestry Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona

Michael A. Bell, Ph.D. Department of Ecology and Evolution Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York Tom Bell Retired biology teacher Grey Cloud Island Saint Paul Park, Minnesota

Craig W. Benkman, Ph.D. Professor, Zoology and Physiology University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming

T.W. Bennett, Jr., Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Sciences University of Southern Mississippi Hattiesburg, Mississippi

David H. Benzing, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Oberlin College Oberlin, Ohio

May R. Berenbaum, Ph.D. Swanlund Professor and Head Department of Entomology University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois

David J. Berg, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Zoology Miami University Oxford, Ohio

Brad Bergstrom, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Valdosta State University Valdosta, Georgia

Carolyn Bergstrom, Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Fellow Bamfield Marine Science Center British Columbia, Canada

Robert L. Beschta, Ph.D. Emeritus Professor, Forest Hydrology Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

Alfred Beulig, Ph.D. Professor, Biology New College of Florida Sarasota, Florida

Charles Birkeland, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor Department of Zoology University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii

John G. Bishop, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biology Washington State University Vancouver, WashingtonNorman A. Bishop Retired Resources Interpreter National Park Service Bozeman, Montana Scott Hoffman Black Ecologist/Entomologist Executive Director Portland, Oregon Robert Blaisdell, Ph.D. Rangeland Ecologist (Retired) Bayfield, Colorado

David E. Blockstein, Ph.D. Chair, The Ornithological Council Washington, District of Columbia

Jessica Blois Ph.D. Candidate Department of Biological Sciences Stanford University Stanford, California

Michael H. Blust, Ph.D. Professor, Biology Green Mountain College Poultney, Vermont

Jane H. Bock, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado

P. Dee Boersma, Ph.D. Wadsworth Endowed Chair in Conservation Science, Professor Department of Biology University of Washington Seattle, Washington

Stephanie Bohlman, Ph.D. Research Scientist Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey

Jennifer Boisvert Research Biologist ABR, Inc. - Environmental Research & Services Anchorage, Alaska

Stephen K. Boss, Ph.D. Director, Environmental Dynamics Program Department of Geosciences University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Arkansas

Reed Bowman, Ph.D. Associate Research Biologist Head, Avian Ecology Lab Archbold Biological Station Lake Placid, Florida

Richard L. Boyce, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Forest Ecologist Northern Kentucky University Highland Heights, Kentucky

David Barton Bray, Ph.D. Department of Environmental Studies Florida International University Miami, Florida

Richard A. Bradley, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology Ohio State University Marion, Ohio

Steven W. Brewer, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Plant Ecology University of North Carolina Wilmington Wilmington, North Carolina

Martin R. Brittan, Ph.D. Professor of Biological Sciences, Emeritus California State University, Sacramento Sacramento, California

William R. Bromer, Ph.D. Professor, Biology and Environmental Science University of St. Francis Joliet, Illinois

Lincoln P. Brower, Ph.D. Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus Zoology University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

David Brown, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Biology and Environmental Science Marietta College Marietta, Ohio

Greg Brown, Ph.D. Professor, Natural Resource Management Green Mountain College Poultney, Vermont

Jeremy M. Brown Ph.D. Candidate in Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas Joyce Marie Brown EPA STAR Fellow, BGSA President Ph.D. Student of Conservation Biology University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida

Ken Brown, Ph.D. Professor of Biological Sciences Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Milford Brown, Ph.D. Plant Biochemist/Physiologist (Retired) U.S. Department of Agriculture

Sharon T. Brown, Wildlife Biologist Beavers: Wetlands and Wildlife Inc. Dolgeville, New York

Kurt Brownell Natural Resource Specialist St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mississippi River Natural Resource Project La Crescent, Minnesota

Deborah Buitron, Ph.D. Research Associate, Biology North Dakota State University Fargo, North Dakota

Abel Bult-Ito, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biology Institute of Arctic Biology University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska

Tom Bultman, Ph.D. Biology Department Hope College Holland, Michigan

Noel M. Burkhead Fish Biologist USGS Gainesville, Florida

Robyn J. Burnham, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Curator of Paleontology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan

George S. Bush Soil Scientist Port Townsend, Washington

Ramona J. Butz Ph.D Candidate, Ecology University of California, Davis Davis, California

James Byers, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Zoology University of New Hampshire Durham, New Hampshire

Bernard H. Byrnes, Ph.D. Soil Science Wild South Moulton, Alabama

Diane Campbell, Ph.D. Professor, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California Irvine, California Philip D. Cantino, Ph.D. Professor Department of Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University Athens, Ohio Ken Carloni, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist Umpqua Community College Roseburg, Oregon Gary Carnefix, M.S. Research Associate Pacific Rivers Council Polson, Montana John L. Carr, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biology University of Louisiana at Monroe Monroe, Louisiana C. Ronald Carroll, Ph.D. Professor, Institute of Ecology Co-Director for Science, River Basin Center University of Georgia Athens, Georgia Bobb Carson, Ph.D. Professor- and Dean-Emeritus Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences College of Arts and Sciences Lehigh University Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Kefyn M. Catley, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Spider Biology Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee Christopher Chabot, Ph.D. Professor, Biology Plymouth State University Plymouth, New Hampshire Kai M. A. Chan, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia F. Stuart Chapin, III, Ph.D. Ecosystem Ecologist Institute of Arctic Biology University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska Robin L. Chazdon, Ph.D. Professor Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut Anita F. Cholewa, Ph.D. Botany, M.S. Forest Ecology Blaine, Minnesota David Christophel, Ph.D. Professor of Botany Director of the Arboretum University of Denver Denver, Colorado. Barbara J. Clement, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biology Doane College Crete, Nebraska Robert C. Clover, Ph.D. Ecology (Retired) California State University, Long Beach Long Beach, California Robert Coats, Ph.D. Forest Hydrologist University of California, Davis Davis, California Bruce E. Coblentz, Ph.D. Professor of Wildlife Ecology Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon Martin L. Cody, Ph.D. Professor, Biology University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles, California William J. Cohen, Ph.D. Senior Lecturer Department of Community and Regional Planning Temple University Ambler, Pennsylvania Robert K. Colwell, Ph.D. Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut Marty Condon, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Biology Cornell College Mount Vernon, Iowa Laura E. Conkey, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Geography Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire Ian M. Cooke, Ph.D. Professor, Zoology University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii Clay E. Corbin, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Biology Biological and Allied Health Sciences Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania John Costello, Ph.D. Professor, Biology Department Providence College Providence, Rhode Island Bruce C. Cowell, Ph.D. Professor of Biology (Retired) University of South Florida Tampa, Florida Joel Cracraft Lamont Curator and Curator-in-Charge Department of Ornithology American Museum of Natural History New York, New York Lance Craighead, Ph.D. Executive Director Craighead Environmental Research Institute Bozeman, Montana T. Patrick Culbert, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Department of Anthropology University of Arizona Santa Fe, New Mexico David A. Culver, Ph.D. Professor, Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio Amanda Curtin, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow/Higher Education Learning Specialist Department of Biology/ Academic Resource Center Duke University Durham, North Carolina Sally Dahir Forest Health Specialist Department of Natural Resources Madison, Wisconsin Pete David, M.S. Wildlife Biologist Ecosystem Management, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico Ana Davidson, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Research Associate Department of Biology University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Paul Dayton, Ph.D. Professor of Marine Ecology University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California Amrita G. de Soyza, Ph.D. Senior Ecologist University of Nevada Reno Reno, Nevada James E. Deacon, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor Emeritus Department of Environmental Studies and Biology University of Nevada Las Vegas Las Vegas, Nevada D. Robert Deal, Ph.D. Professor, Plant Biology Shawnee State University Portsmouth, Ohio Kelly Decker, Ph.D. Research Faculty Division of Science and Public Policy California State University - Monterey Bay Seaside, California Kevin J. Delaney, Ph.D. Plant Ecophysiology Visiting Assistant Professor in Biology University of Washington Seattle, Washington Dominick A. DellaSala, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist World Wildlife Fund Ashland, Oregon Thomas H. DeLuca, Ph.D. Professor, Forest Soils University of Montana Missoula, Montana Saara J. DeWalt, Ph.D. Plant Ecologist Assistant Professor, Biological Sciences Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina David S. Dobkin, Ph.D. Senior Ecologist High Desert Ecological Research Institute Bend, Oregon Dana E. Dolsen, M.S. Forest Science Holladay, Utah Richard J. Douglass, Ph.D. Department of Biology Montana Tech of the University of Montana Butte, Montana Craig C. Downer Wildlife Ecologist Andean Tapir Fund Minden, Nevada Jean Dubach, Ph.D. Population Genetics Department of Conservation Science Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield Zoo Brookfield, Illinois Tom Dudley, Ph.D. Marine Science Institute University of California Santa Barbara, California Natural Resource and Environmental Sciences University of Nevada Reno, Nevada R. Scot Duncan, Ph.D. Restoration Ecologist Birmingham-Southern College Birmingham, Alabama Peter W. Dunwiddie, Ph.D. Affiliate Professor, Biology University of Washington Seattle, Washington Phillip Dustan, Ph.D. FLS Marine Ecologist Department of Biology College of Charleston Charleston, South Carolina L. L. Eberhardt, Ph.D. Retired from Battelle-Northwest Affiliate Professor Washington State University Montana State University Vincent M. Eckhart, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biology Grinnell College Grinnell, Iowa Thomas Egan Senior Ecologist AMEC Earth and Environmental and Conservation Chair Mojave Chapter CNPS Patrick M. Eggleston, Ph.D. Department of Biology Keene State College Keene, New Hampshire John F. Elder, Ph.D. Aquatic Ecologist (Retired) U.S. Geological Survey Corvallis, Oregon Elise Elliott-Smith, M.S. Wildlife Biologist Corvallis, Oregon Michelle Elmore M.S. Student, Botany University of Hawaii-Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii John M. Emlen Research Ecologist Western Fisheries Research Center U.S. Geological Survey Seattle, Washington Eve Emshwiller, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Botany University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin William R. Engels, Ph.D. Professor, Genetics University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, Wisconsin J.H. Epler, Ph.D. Aquatic Entomologist Crawfordville, Florida Christopher W. Evans College of Natural Sciences Hawaii Pacific University Kaneohe, Hawaii Jonathan P. Evans, Ph.D. Director, Landscape Analysis Laboratory Associate Professor, Biology University of the South Sewanee, Tennessee Margaret Evans, Ph.D. Donnelley Fellow Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Yale University New Haven, Connecticut Douglas Eveleigh, Ph.D. Biochemistry and Microbiology Cook College, Rutgers New Brunswick, New Jersey Christopher Farmer, Ph.D. North American Monitoring Coordinator Hawk Mountain Sanctuary Kempton, Pennsylvania Laura Farrell Ph.D. student, Biology University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont Mary Ferm Masters, School of Natural Resources University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Bainbridge Island, Washington Melissa K. Fierke, Ph.D. Forest Entomology University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Arkansas Paul Fine Assistant Professor Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Mark Fiorini Fisheries Management, Natural Sciences President, Maiden Creek Watershed Association Kempton, Pennsylvania Thomas L. Fleischner, Ph.D. Professor, Environmental Studies Prescott College Prescott, Arizona Erica Fleishman, Ph.D. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis Santa Barbara, California Erica Fleishman, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist Department of Biological Sciences Stanford University Stanford, California R. Wills Flowers, Ph.D. Center for Biological Control Florida A&M University Tallahassee, Florida George W. Folkerts, Ph.D. Wetland Biology, Aquatic Insects, Herpetology, Natural History Professor, Biological Sciences Auburn University Auburn, Alabama Joseph Fortier, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology Entomologist Saint Louis University Saint Louis, Missouri Elizabeth A. Forys, Ph.D Professor of Environmental Science and Biology Eckerd College St. Petersburg, Florida Brian Foster, Ph.D. CRES, Zoological Society of San Diego El Cajon, California CJ Fotheringham, M.S. Fire Ecologist Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, California David M. Fox M.S. Wildlife Louisiana State University Department of Renewable Natural Resources Baton Rouge, Louisiana G.J. Franz, M.S., M.A. Former Professor Ecology/Biology Long Island University New York, New York Mary Frazer, M.E.M. Environmental Specialist North Carolina State Government Raleigh, North Carolina Lee E. Frelich, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota Terrence J. Frest, Ph.D. Malacologist Seattle, Washington Chris Frissell, Ph.D. Senior Staff Scientist The Pacific Rivers Council Polson, Montana Karen P. Frutchey, M.S. Resource Management Specialist Five JIMAR University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii Jed Fuhrman, Ph.D. McCulloch-Crosby Chair of Marine Biology University of Southern California Los Angeles, California Alder Fuller, Ph.D. Ecology/Evolution Euglena Edu/ProtoTista Eugene, Oregon Cyn Gabriel Native Plant Steward Washington Native Plant Society Seattle, Washington Kristin Gade Ph.D. Candidate IGERT Urban Ecology Fellow School of Life Sciences Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona George J. Gamboa, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Oakland University Rochester, Michigan Timothy J. Gaudin, Ph.D. UC Foundation Professor and Acting Head Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Chattanooga, Tennessee Thomas M. Gehring, Ph.D. Department of Biology Central Michigan University Mount Pleasant, Michigan Donald Geiger, S.M., Ph.D. Department of Biology University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio Vanessa Brooks Genovese Research Scientist Division of Science and Environmental Policy California State University, Monterey Bay Seaside, California Bob Gillespie, Ph.D. Science Faculty Wenatchee Valley College-Omak Omak, Washington Frank S. Gilliam, Ph.D. Plant Ecologist Department of Biological Sciences Marshall University Huntington, West Virginia Rosanna Giordano, Ph.D. Department of Plant and Soil Science University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont Travis C. Glenn, Ph.D. Molecular Ecologist Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Universities of Georgia and South Carolina Aiken, South Carolina Michale Glennon, Ph.D. Associate Conservation Scientist Wildlife Conservation Society's Adirondack Communities and Conservation Program Saranac Lake, New York Robert C. Glotzhober Curator, Natural History Ohio Historical Society Columbus, Ohio Karen Goetz, M.S. Conservation Biology (Amphibian Ecology) San Francisco State University San Francisco, California Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Ph.D. Hydrologist Center for Environmental Programs Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, Ohio David L. Gorchov, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Botany Miami University Oxford, Ohio Steven Green, Ph.D. Professor, Biology University of Miami Coral Gables, Florida Gary K. Greer, Ph.D. Associate Editor, American Fern Journal Biology Department Grand Valley State University Allendale, Michigan Carole S. Griffiths, Ph.D. Professor, Biology Long Island University Brooklyn, New York Jon Grinnell FM Uhler Chair in Biology Gustavus Adolphus College St. Peter, Minnesota Betty J. Grizzle, D.Env. Wetland Scientist Everglades Foundation Palmetto Bay, Florida Thurman L. Grove, Ph.D. Professor, Zoology North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina Daniel S. Gruner Postdoctoral Scholar Bodega Marine Lab University of California, Davis Bodega Bay, California John S. Gunn, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist The Trust to Conserve Northeast Forestlands Hebron, Maine James Haas, Ph.D. Ecologist Sacramento, California Erin Hagen Wildlife Biologist College of Forest Resources University of Washington Seattle, Washington Judy Haggard Wildlife Biologist Haggard Wildlife Consulting Fieldbrook, California Stacey Halpern, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Biology Department Pacific University Forest Grove, Oregon Richard W. Halsey, M.A. Director/Fire Ecology California Chaparral Field Institute Escondido, California Steven Hamburg, Ph.D. Ittleson Associate Professor of Environmental Studies Forest Ecologist Brown University Providence, Rhode Island Michael Hamilton, Ph.D. Director, James San Jacinto Mountains Reserve University of California, Riverside Idyllwild, California Alexander H. Harcourt, Ph.D. Professor, Graduate Group in Ecology and Department of Anthropology University of California Davis, California James A. Harding, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Recreation and Natural Resource Management Green Mountain College Poultney, Vermont Annita Harlan, Ph.D. Adjunct Instructor Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology The University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona Marilyn M. Harlin, Ph.D. Professor Emerita, Botany University of Rhode Island Portland, Oregon David D. Hart, Ph.D. Director and Professor Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Environmental and Watershed Research University of Maine Orono, Maine Donna Hart, Ph.D. Department of Anthropology University of Missouri - St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri John Harte, Ph.D. Professor Energy and Resources Group University of California Berkeley, California Mary Ellen Harte, Ph. D. Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory Crested Butte, Colorado David Hastings, Ph.D. Associate Professor Eckerd College St Petersburg, Florida Skippy Hau Aquatic Biologist Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii Rain L. Healer Biology Teaching Associate California State University, Fresno Fresno, California Rosanne Healy Research Associate Iowa State University Ames, Iowa Robert T. Heath, Ph.D. Professor of Biological Sciences Director, Water Resources Research Institute Kent State University Kent, Ohio Brooke Parry Hecht, Ph.D. Ecosystem Ecology Scholar, Center for Humans and Nature Chicago, Illinois Mark Heifner Ecologist Southwestern Ecological Services Denver, Colorado Alex L. Heindl Curator of Herpetology Marjorie Barrick Museum of Natural History University of Nevada, Las Vegas Las Vegas, Nevada Ken R. Helms, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor of Biology Department of Biology University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont Peggy S. M. Hill, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biological Science University of Tulsa Tulsa, Oklahoma Bill Hilton Jr., M.A.T., M.S. Executive Director Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History York, South Carolina Gregory Hoffman Fishery Biologist U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Libby, Montana Richard T. Holmes, Ph.D. Harris Professor of Environmental Biology Emeritus Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire Debora R. Holmes Managing Editor, Environmental Practice, Journal of the National Association of Environmental Professionals Olympia, Washington Marcel Holyoak, Ph.D. Professor Department of Environmental Science and Policy University of California Davis, California Michael H. Horn, Ph.D. Professor, Biological Science California State University Fullerton, California Thomas R. Horton, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Mycorrhizal Ecology State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry Syracuse, New York G.F. Hrusa, Ph.D. Senior Plant Taxonomist California Department of Food and Agriculture Sacramento, California Robert Huber, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biological Sciences Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, Ohio Ron Hubert Project Director Sustainable Communities Research Project Center for Sustainable Environments Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona Russell Huddleston PWS Wetlands Ecologist / Botanist CH2MHILL Jarvis E. Hudson, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Biology Fayetteville State University Fayetteville, North Carolina Robert M. Hughes, Ph.D. Research Associate Professor Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon Malcolm Hunter Libra Professor of Conservation Biology University of Maine Orono, Maine Richard Hutto, Ph.D. Professor and Director Avian Science Center Division of Biological Sciences University of Montana Missoula, Montana Daria Hyde Associate Conservation Planner Michigan Natural Features Inventory Lansing, Michigan G. J. Ikenberry, Ph.D. Biology Professor (Retired) McPherson College McPherson, Kansas David K. Imper Ecologist US Fish and Wildlife Service Arcata, California Timothy Ingalsbee, Ph.D. Fire Sociologist University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon Haruhiko Itagaki, Ph.D. Professor, Biology Kenyon College Gambier, Ohio Jerome A. Jackson Professor of Biology Florida Gulf Coast University Fort Myers, Florida Daniel H. Janzen, Ph.D. Dimaura Professor of Conservation Biology Department of Biology University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Douglas L. Jeffries, Ph.D. Plant Ecologist Professor of Biology and Environmental Studies University of the Ozarks Clarksville, Arkansas David G. Jenkins, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biology University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida Kurt J. Jirka Senior Aquatic Biologist Ichthyological Associates, Inc. Ithaca, New York Bart R. Johnson, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Landscape Architecture and Environmental Studies Program University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon Rebecca Johnson Center for Environmental Research and Conservation Columbia University New York, New York Kyle Joly, M.S. Ecology Wildlife Biologist Fairbanks, Alaska Laura E. Jones, Ph.D. Research Associate, Theoretical Ecology Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Cornell University Ithaca, New York Timmothy Kaminski Wildlife ecologist Mountain Livestock Cooperative Augusta, Montana James R. Karr, Ph.D. Professor, Aquatics Sciences and Biology University of Washington Seattle, Washington Nancy E. Karraker Ph.D. Candidate, EPA Fellow State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry Syracuse, New York Sterling C. Keeley, Ph.D. Professor Department of Botany University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii Barbara A. Knuth, Ph.D. Professor and Chair Department of Natural Resources Cornell University Ithaca, New York Walter D. Koenig, Ph.D. Research Zoologist University of California, Berkeley Carmel Valley, California Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, Ph.D. Professor, History of Science (including Environmental Sciences) School of Geology and Geophysics University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota Loraine U. Kohorn, Ph.D. Plant Ecologist Brunswick, Maine Julie E. Korb, Ph.D. Department of Biology Fort Lewis College Durango, Colorado Andrew Kota, M.S. Forestry-Utah State University Stewardship and Protection Associate Foothills Conservancy of North Carolina Morganton, North Carolina Laurie Koteen, M.S. Ecologist University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California Adrienne Kovach, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Department of Natural Resources University of New Hampshire Durham, New Hampshire Sarah Kraszewski, M.S. Restoration Ecologist Madison, Wisconsin Fred Kraus, Ph.D. Department of Natural Sciences Bishop Museum Honolulu, Hawaii Shawn Kuchta, Ph.D. Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Earth and Marine Sciences University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California Christa Kugler Wild Animal Keeper Bronx Zoo, Wildlife Conservation Society New York, New York Melinda Laituri, Ph.D. Geographer Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Rick Landenberger, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Department of Geology and Geography West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia Sarah Lauerman M.S. Candidate, Wildlife and Fisheries Biology Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina Charles Laun, B.S., M.S. Forestry, Ecology, Forest Ecology, Climatology Professor of Ecology (Retired) Columbia, Missouri Patrick Leacock, Ph.D. Adjunct Curator, Mycology Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois David S. Lee Curator of Birds (Retired) North Carolina State Museum Raleigh, North Carolina Director, The Tortoise Reserve White Lake, North Carolina Derek E. Lee, M.S. Fire Ecologist Petaluma, California Carol J. Leonard, M.S. Instructor, Marine Sciences Charlotte County Public Schools Englewood, Florida Christopher A. Lepczyk, Ph.D. Honorary Fellow University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Mark K. Lesher, M.S. Environmental Scientist U.S. EPA Kansas City, Kansas Susan G. Letcher Doctoral Candidate in Ecology University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut Simon Levin, Ph.D. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey Joyce N. Levine, PhD, AICP Urban and Regional Planning Florida Atlantic University Ft. Lauderdale, Florida William Z. Lidicker, Jr., Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, Integrative Biology University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California Patrick Lieske, M.S. Wildlife Biologist Brookings, Oregon Gene E. Likens, Ph.D. Millbrook, NY Creighton M. Litton, Ph.D. Research Faculty, Ecosystem Ecology California State University Fullerton Fullerton, California Dale R. Lockwood, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado John P. Loegering, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Wildlife Ecology University of Minnesota Crookston, Minnesota Brian Logan, M.S. Wildlife Biologist Bozeman, Montana Frank T. Logiudice, M.S. Undergraduate Program Coordinator Department of Biology University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida Kathleen LoGiudice, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Biological Sciences Union College Schenectady, New York Marilyn D. Loveless, Ph.D. Population Ecologist Professor, Biology College of Wooster Wooster, Ohio Irmgard Lukanik Masters Student Department of Biology University of South Florida Tampa, Florida Bruce Lyon, Ph.D. Associate Professor University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California William Mackay, Ph. D. Desert Ecologist Professor University of Texas El Paso, Texas Jason MacKenzie, Ph.D. Post-Doc, Rainforest Ecology and Evolution Museum of Vertebrate Zoology University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California Julie Maier, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Science University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Martin B. Main, Ph.D. Associate Professor and Wildlife Ecologist Program Leader, Florida Master Naturalist Program University of Florida Immokalee, Florida Julin Maloof, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Plant Biology University of California, Davis Davis, California Marion Mann Fishery Biologist Hatfield Marine Science Center Newport, Oregon Barton C. Marcy, Jr. Senior Fellow Scientist-Ichthyologist (Retired) Aiken, South Carolina Janet Marsden Assistant Professor Canino School of Engineering SUNY Canton Canton, New York Robert E. Marra, Ph.D. Plant Pathology and Ecology The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station New Haven, Connecticut Laura Marx, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist Westfield, Massachusetts John M. Marzluff, Ph.D. Denman Professor of Sustainable Resource Science Professor of Wildlife Science College of Forest Resources University of Washington Seattle, Washington Glenn Matlack, Ph.D. Environmental and Plant Biology Ohio University Athens, Ohio Brady J. Mattsson, Ph.D. Avian Ecologist Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources University of Georgia Athens, Georgia William W. Mautz, Ph.D. Professor, Natural Resources University of New Hampshire Durham, New Hampshire Declan McCabe, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology Saint Michael’s College Colchester, Vermont Keith R. McCaffery Northern Forest Research Biologist Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Rhinelander, Wisconsin Brian McCarthy, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist Ohio University Athens, Ohio Charles A. McClaugherty, Ph.D. Professor, Ecology and Environmental Science Mount Union College Alliance, Ohio Brent H. McCown Gottschalk Distinguished Professor, Horticulture Nelson Institute of Environmental Sciences Director, Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems (CIAS) University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Dale A. McCullough, Ph.D. Senior Fishery Scientist Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission Portland, Oregon Allison S. McDaniel Biologist Frederick, Maryland Mara A. McDonald, Ph.D. Administrator, Evolution Initiative Assistant Administrator, Genetics University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin William H. McDowell, Ph.D. Professor, Water Resources Management Director, NH Water Resources Research Center University of New Hampshire Durham, New Hampshire Amy B. McEuen, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist Assistant Professor, Biology University of Illinois Springfield, Illinois Daniel J. McGarvey Ph.D. Candidate Department of Biological Sciences Aquatic Biology Program University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, Alabama Patrick McGuire, Ph.D. Director Genetic Resources Conservation Program University of California Davis, California Julie McIntyre Ecology Ph.D. Student University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Melissa McKay, M.S. Lynnwood, Washington William O. McLarney, Ph.D. Director, Upper Little Tennessee Watershed Biomonitoring Program Little Tennessee Watershed Association Franklin, North Carolina K. W. McLeod, Ph.D. Associate Ecologist, Emeritus Savannah River Ecology Laboratory University of Georgia Aiken, South Carolina Jack D. McMillen, Ph.D. Washington Natural Heritage Program Olympia, Washington Scott McNaught, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biology Central Michigan University Mount Pleasant, Michigan Michael J. Medler, Ph.D. Department of Environmental Studies Huxley College Western Washington University Bellingham, Washington Rebecca P. Meegan Wildlife Biologist Coastal Plains Institute and Land Conservancy Tallahassee, Florida Robert J. Meese, Ph.D. Staff Research Associate IV Department of Environmental Science & Policy University of California Davis, California Gary K. Meffe, Ph.D. Editor Conservation Biology Department of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Sergio Merino Forest Ecologist/Biologist Lafayette, Louisiana Robert W. Merriam, Ph.D. Biological Science Retired SUNY Stony Brook Invasive Species Specialist North Carolina Chapter, The Nature Conservancy 1995-2000 J.P. Michaud, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Entomology Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center-Hays Hays, Kansas Anne Millhollen, Ph.D. Biologist/Anthropologist University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon Andrew G. Milroy Natural Resources Manager West Springfield, Massachusetts Arlee Montalvo, Ph.D. Plant Restoration Ecologist and Population Biologist Resource Conservation District and University of California Riverside, California Richard R. Montanucci, Ph.D. Systematic Herpetologist and Ecologist Associate Professor, Biological Sciences Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina Randall Moorman, MEM Ph.D. Student Department of Botany University of Hawai’i Honolulu, Hawaii Peter B. Moyle, Ph.D. Professor, Fisheries Biology Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology University of California, Davis Davis, California Rob Mrowka, M.S. Forest Ecology Manager, Environmental Planning Division Las Vegas, Nevada Christa P.H. Mulder, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Ecology University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska Dennis D. Murphy, Ph.D. Professor, Biology University of Nevada Reno, Nevada K. Greg Murray, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Hope College Holland, Michigan Michael P. Murray, Ph.D. Fire Ecologist Wildlands Management Institute Crater Lake, Oregon Philip Myers, Ph.D. Associate Curator of Mammals Associate Professor, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Ann Arbor, Michigan Dhruba Naug, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Mark Neff, M.S. Ph.D. Student School of Life Sciences Arizona State University Dr. C. Riley Nelson Professor, Integrative Biology Brigham Young University Provo, Utah Cheryl Nenn, M.S. Milwaukee Riverkeeper Friends of Milwaukee’s Rivers Milwaukee, Wisconsin William D. Newmark, Ph.D. Research Curator Utah Museum of Natural History University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Barry R. Noon, Ph.D. Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Elaine Norman, Ph.D. Stetson University DeLand, Florida Elliott A. Norse, Ph.D. President Marine Conservation Biology Institute Bellevue, Washington Gretchen North, Ph.D. Department of Biology Occidental College Los Angeles, California Reed Noss, Ph.D. Professor, Conservation Biology University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida Gary Nuechterlein, Ph.D. Professor Department of Biology North Dakota State Univesity Fargo, North Dakota Mary O'Brien, Ph.D. Botanist/Ecologist Grand Canyon Trust Eugene, Oregon Kevin O'Connor M.S. Student, Fish Ecology Lab San Diego State University San Diego, California Kathleen O'Reilly, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biology University of Portland Portland, Oregon Dennis C. Odion, Ph.D. Vegetation Ecologist University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, California and Southern Oregon University Ashland, Oregon Erin O'Doherty, Ph.D. Ecologist Laramie, Wyoming Richard R. Old, Ph.D. Weed Identification Specialist XID Services Pullman, Washington Guy W. Oliver, Ph.D. Research Associate Institute of Marine Science University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California Gordon H. Orians, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Biology University of Washington Seattle, Washington Marilyn Ortt Field Botanist (Retired) Ohio Department of Natural Resources Marietta, Ohio John A. Osborne, Ph.D. Professor, Limnology Department of Biology University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida Richard S. Ostfeld, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Institute of Ecosystem Studies Millbrook, New York Andrea Ouse, M.S. Adjunct Faculty Maricopa County Community Colleges and Northern Arizona University New River, Arizona Kimberly A. O. Pacheco, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Chemistry School of Chemistry, Earth Sciences, and Physics University of Northern Colorado Greeley, Colorado Joel E. Pagel, Ph.D. Research Associate Santa Cruz Predatory Bird Research Group Ashland, Oregon Francis H. Palmer, D.Env Environmental Scientist-Water Quality Sacramento, California Lydia C. Pan, Ph.D. Senior Principal Scientist Pfizer Global Research and Development Groton, Connecticut Michael Parke, Ph.D. Research Biologist University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii Michael S. Parker, Ph.D. Professor, Biology Southern Oregon University Ashland, Oregon David F. Parkhurst, Ph.D. Botany (Plant Ecology) Professor Emeritus of Environmental Science Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana David R. Parsons Wildlife Biologist The Rewilding Institute Albuquerque, New Mexico Arthur Dean Partridge, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, Forest Disease and Insect Ecology College of Forestry, Wildlife & Range Sciences University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho Carol Joan Patterson Graduate student, Biological Sciences University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Arkansas Gustav Paulay, Ph.D. Associate Professor Florida Museum of Natural History University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Timothy A. Pearce, Ph.D. Assistant Curator and Head, Section of Mollusks Carnegie Museum of Natural History Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania James L. Pease, Ph.D. Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management Iowa State University Ames, Iowa J. Akers Pence, Ph.D. Research Lepidopterist State Coordinator, Florida Butterfly Monitoring Network McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity Florida Museum of Natural History Gainesville, Florida David Perry, Ph.D. Ecosystem Studies and Management Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon Joy B. Perry Lecturer, Biological Sciences University of Wisconsin-Fox Valley Menasha, Wisconsin Kimberly A. Peters, Ph.D. Director of Research and Monitoring Cape May Bird Observatory New Jersey Audubon Cape May Court House, New Jersey Jeff Phillips, MESM, CA REA II Wildlife Biologist Santa Barbara, CA Carlos F. A. Pinkham, Ph.D. Environmental Biologist Biology Department Norwich University Northfield, Vermont Jay Pitocchelli, Ph.D. Professor, Biology Saint Anselm College Manchester, New Hampshire J. Dan Pittillo, Ph.D. Biology Professor (Retired) Western Carolina University Cullowhee, North Carolina Mechthild Pohlschroder, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Biology University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Ellen Popodi, Ph.D. Assistant Scientist, Biology Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana Jacquelyn Potter Illinois Natural History Survey Champaign, Illinois H. Douglas Pratt Research Curator of Birds North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences Raleigh, North Carolina Jennifer E. Price, Ph.D. Biologist South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Research Section Eastover, South Carolina James J. Provenzano President Clean Air Now Los Angeles, California Anne Pusey, Ph.D. McKnight Distinguished University Professor Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota Robert Michael Pyle, Ph.D. Lepidopterist/Author Grays River, Washington G. S. Rahi, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Natural Sciences Fayetteville State University Fayetteville, North Carolina Jan A. Randall, Ph.D. Professor Emerita of Biology San Francisco State University San Francisco, California Lisa Rapaport Behavioral Ecologist Department of Biological Sciences Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina Brenda Rashleigh, Ph.D. Aquatic Ecologist Athens, Georgia Margaret K. Reed Environmental Resource Specialist U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Omaha, Nebraska Sarah Reed M.S. Student, Environmental Science and Policy Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona Jessica Reichmuth Ph.D. Candidate Department of Biological Sciences Rutgers University Newark, New Jersey Richard J. Reiner, Ph.D. Senior Ecologist The Nature Conservancy Chico, California Karl J. Reinhard, Ph.D. Professor, School of Natural Resources Fulbright Scholar University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska Bradford G. Rence, Ph.D. Entomologist Professor and Chair of Biology Lawrence University Appleton, Wisconsin Ann F. Rhoads, Ph.D. Senior Botanist, Pennsylvania Flora Project Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Jon Rhodes Hydrologist Portland, Oregon Cecil F. Rich, Ph.D. Aquatic Ecologist Anchorage, Alaska David I. Richard, Ph.D. Professor, Biology Rollins College Winter Park, Florida Lisa Richardson-Calfee, Ph.D. Department of Biology Queens University of Charlotte Charlotte, North Carolina Dan L. Richter, Ph.D. Forest Pathologist Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan Brett R. Riddle, Ph.D. Professor of Biology President, International Biogeography Society School of Life Sciences University of Nevada, Las Vegas Las Vegas, Nevada Jennifer Riddell Graduate Student, Plant Biology EPA Fellow School of Life Sciences Graduate Programs Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona Catherine Riseng, Ph.D. Research Associate II School of Natural Resources and Environment University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Bruce H. Rittenhouse Manager of Conservation Programs Center for Plant Conservation Missouri Botanical Garden St. Louis, Missouri David W. Roberts, Ph.D. Professor and Head Department of Ecology Montana State University Bozeman, Montana Oscar J. Rocha Assistant Professor, Biological Sciences Kent State University Kent, Ohio Carlton L. Rockett, Ph.D. Professor, Biological Sciences Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, Ohio Gary W. Roemer, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Fishery and Wildlife Sciences New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico William Rogers, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Winthrop University Rock Hill, South Carolina Sievert Rohwer, Ph.D. Curator of Birds Burke Museum University of Washington Seattle, Washington Thomas P. Rooney, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist Department of Botany University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Stephen T. Ross, Ph.D. Eco-Consulting Services, LLC Pagosa Springs, Colorado Curator Emeritus of Fishes Museum of Southwestern Biology University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Peter Reagel Ph.D. Student Department of Entomology University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Janice Reid Wildlife Biologist USFS Roseburg, Oregon John T. Rotenberry, Ph.D. Professor, Biology University of California Riverside, California Steve Rothenberger, Ph.D. Professor, Biology University of Nebraska at Kearney Kearney, Nebraska Betsie B. Rothermel, Ph.D. Assistant Research Scientist University of Georgia Aiken, South Carolina Stephen I. Rothstein, Ph.D. Professor of Zoology Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, California Leanne H. Roulson, M.S. Fisheries Biologist Bozeman, Montana Barbara A. ("Bitty") Roy, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Ecology University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon Suzanne M. Royer, Ph.D. Senior Research Associate Department of Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Matthew Rubino Conservation Biologist/GIS Analyst SE-GAP/Biodiversity and Spatial Information Center Department of Zoology North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina Deborah D. Rudis Wildlife Biologist US Fish and Wildlife Service Juneau, Alaska Cristina Rumbaitis del Rio, Ph.D. Research Fellow Columbia University Earth Institute New York, New York James Runkle, Ph.D. Professor, Biological Sciences Wright State University Dayton, Ohio Sam Rushforth, Ph.D. Professional Ecologist and Dean of Science and Health Utah Valley State College Orem, Utah James R. Ruzycki, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor, Fisheries and Wildlife Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon Emily Saarinen Ph.D. Candidate Department of Entomology and Nematology University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Thalia Sachtleben, M.S. Managing Editor, The Condor High Desert Ecological Research Institute Bend, Oregon Carl Safina, Ph.D. President Blue Ocean Institute Cold Spring Harbor, New York D. Scott Samuels, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biology University of Montana Missoula, Montana Sahotra Sarkar, Ph.D. Professor of Integrative Biology University of Texas Austin, Texas Raymond A. Saumure, Ph.D. Wildlife Biologist The Springs Preserve Las Vegas, Nevada N. Elizabeth Saunders, M.S. Department of Plant Biology Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois Melissa Savage, Ph.D. Emerita Associate Professor, Geography University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, California John F. Schalles, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Director of the Environmental Science Program Creighton University Omaha, Nebraska Tracy Scheinkman, M.S. Genetics (specialty Wildlife Conservation) Adjunct Professor, Biology Pima Community College Tucson, Arizona Joseph R. Schiller, Ph.D. Aquatic Ecologist Austin Peay State University Clarksville, Tennessee Andrew Schnabel, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Evolution and Ecology Indiana University South Bend South Bend, Indiana Tania Schoennagel, Ph.D. Fire Scientist University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Robert L. Schooley, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois Krysten L. Schuler Ph.D. Candidate Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University Brookings, South Dakota Bronwyn Scott, M.S. Invasive Species Ecologist Ph.D. student, University of Washington Adjunct Life Science Faculty, Bellevue Community College Bellevue, Washington Tim Seastedt, Ph.D. Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Jack A. Seilheimer, Ph.D. Professor of Biology (Limnologist) Colorado State University-Pueblo Pueblo, Colorado Holmes Semken, Ph.D. Department of Geoscience University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa Tara Seoane M.S. Candidate Biodiversity, Conservation, and Policy SUNY University at Albany Albany, New York Bonita Shanafelt Support Scientist Forest Service, PNW Research Station Wenatchee, Washington Ruth G. Shaw, Ph.D. Evolutionary geneticist Professor Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota Kathleen L. Shea, Ph.D. Professor of Biology St. Olaf College Northfield, Minnesota Dennis K. Shiozawa Aquatic Ecologist Department of Integrative Biology Brigham Young University Provo, Utah Brian R. Shmaefsky, Ph.D. Professor of Biology and Service Learning Coordinator Kingwood College Kingwood, Texas George Sideris, Ph.D. Biology Department Long Island University Brooklyn, New York Barbara A. Siems Ecologist, geologist Retired University of Colorado Instructor Miles R. Silman, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist Associate Professor, Biology Wake Forest University Winston-Salem, North Carolina Tony Silvaggio, Ph.D. Environmental Sociology Department of Sociology Humboldt State University Arcata, California Rebecca Simmons, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Biology University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota Jack W. Sites, Jr. Maeser Professor of Integrative Biology Curator of Herpetology Brigham Young University Provo, Utah Kathy Skalbeck Wildlife Biologist Member of The Wildlife Society Albuquerque, New Mexico Carol Skinner, Ph.D. Department of Biology Edinboro University (Retired) Consulting Scientist, Ecology, Ornithology; Geauga Park District; Holden Arboretum Chesterland, Ohio Diane E. Sklensky, Ph.D. Professor, Biological Sciences Le Moyne College Syracuse, New York Stephen A. Skrabal, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Chemistry & Biochemistry University of North Carolina, Wilmington Wilmington, North Carolina Shawn Smallwood, Ph.D. Ecologist Davis, California Bryce E. Smith, Ph.D. Botanist/Ecologist (Retired) Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan David L. Smith, Ph.D. Associate Professor and Chair Department of Biological Sciences Le Moyne College Syracuse, New York Gerald Smith, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Jennifer Smith, Ph.D. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis University of California Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, California Preston Smith Ph.D. Student, Environmental Sciences Wright State University Dayton, Ohio Sherilyn G. F. Smith, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biological Sciences Le Moyne College Syracuse, New York Erica Smithwick, Ph.D. Ecosystem Ecologist/Fire Scientist University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Paul Sneed, Ph.D. Environmental Studies Core Faculty, Graduate Programs Prescott College Prescott, Arizona Anthony Snider, Ph.D. North Carolina Coastal Reserve UNCW Center for Marine Science Wilmington, North Carolina Eric B. Snyder, Ph.D. Stream Ecologist Assistant Professor, Biology Grand Valley State University Allendale, Michigan Tex A. Sordahl, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Luther College Decorah, Iowa Candan Soykan Graduate Student School of Life Sciences Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona John Sovell, M.S. Zoology Team Leader and Invertebrate Zoologist, Colorado Natural Heritage Program College of Natural Resources Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Wayne D. Spencer, Ph.D. Senior Conservation Biologist Conservation Biology Institute San Diego, California Timothy P. Spira, Ph.D. Plant Ecologist Professor, Biological Sciences Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina Stephen M. Spomer Research Associate Department of Entomology University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska James R. Spotila, Ph.D. Betz Chair Professor of Environmental Science Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology Drexel University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Peter B. Stacey, Ph.D. Research Professor Department of Biology University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Nathaniel Stafford Ph.D. Candidate Seagrass Gap Dynamics University of South Florida Tampa, Florida Richard Steiner, Ph.D. Professor University of Alaska Anchorage, Alaska. Susan Stephens Graduate Student, Environmental Geography/Water Resource Management University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Robert Stiles, Ph.D. Ichthyologist Department of Biology Samford University Birmingham, Alabama Glenn R. Stewart, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Zoology and Environmental Science Biological Sciences Department California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Pomona, California Paul M. Stewart, Ph.D. Professor of Environmental Sciences Troy University Troy, Alabama Lacey Stokes M.S. Candidate Department of Forestry and Agriculture Nacogdoches, Texas Richard Strathmann, Ph.D. Friday Harbor Laboratories Friday Harbor, Washington Lori J. Stratton Environmental Toxicologist, Plant Physiologist, Former employee of the U.S. Forest Service Aiken Research Station Burlington, Vermont James R. Strittholt, Ph.D. Executive Director, Landscape Ecologist Conservation Biology Institute Corvallis, Oregon Matthew Struckhoff Ecologist U.S. Geological Survey Columbia, Missouri Mel Sunquist, Ph.D. Professor, Wildlife Ecology and Conservation University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Samuel S. Sweet, Ph.D. Professor Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology University of California Santa Barbara, California Michael C. Swift, Ph.D. Aquatic Ecologist Biology Department St. Olaf College Northfield, Minnesota Adam Switalski, M.S. Science Coordinator Wildlands CPR Missoula, Montana William A. Szelistowski, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biology Eckerd College St. Petersburg, Florida Robert Tafanelli, Ph.D. Research Associate/Assistant Professor (Retired) Wildlife Sciences Department New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico David Tallmon, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology University of Alaska Southeast Juneau, Alaska David Winship Taylor, Ph.D. Botanist Professor and Head of Biology Curator of the Herbarium Indiana University Southeast New Albany, Indiana Douglas Tempel, M.S. Wildlife Biologist Big Bear Lake, California Stephen T. Tettelbach, Ph.D. Professor of Biology C.W. Post Campus of Long Island University Brookville, New York Guy A. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D. Professor Emeritus and Former chairman, Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas Tamara Ticktin, Ph.D. Botany Department University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii Brian N. Tissot, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Environmental Science Washington State University Vancouver Vancouver, Washington Steve Todd Habitat Biologist Point No Point Treaty Council Kingston, Washington A. Spencer Tomb, Ph.D. Plant Systematics and Evolution Associate Professor, Biology Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas Gayle S. Tonkovich, M.S. Botanist Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois David W. Tonkyn, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biological Sciences Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina Vicki Tripoli, Ph.D. Center for Conservation Science and Policy National Science Advisory Board Ashland, Oregon Stephen C. Trombulak, Ph.D. Professor, Biology and Environmental Studies Middlebury College Middlebury, Vermont William J. Trush, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor, Fisheries Humboldt State University Arcata, California Michael Tuma, M.S. Wildlife Biologist Sierra Madre, California Robin Tyser, Ph.D. Professor, Ecology University of Wisconsin - La Crosse La Crosse, Wisconsin Michael Van Clef, Ph.D. Ecological Solutions, LLC Great Meadows, New Jersey David Van Horn Graduate Student Department of Biology University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Thomas T. Veblen, Ph.D. Professor, Geography University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Kristin Vessey, Ph. D. Center for Environmental Programs (Retired) Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, Ohio Adrienne Viosca M.S. Forestry Candidate Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana Frank von Hippel, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Aquatic Ecology University of Alaska Anchorage Anchorage, Alaska Floyd Waddle, Ph.D. Associate Professor Fayetteville State University Fayetteville, North Carolina Robert O. Wagner, Ph.D. Wildlife Ecologist DeRidder, Louisiana D. Alexander Wait, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Biology Missouri State University Mashuri Waite Graduate Student, Botany University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii Christine A. Walker Marine Biologist Half Moon Bay, California Don Waller, Ph.D. Forest Ecologist Department of Botany University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin B. Michael Walton, Ph.D. Director, Environmental Institute Associate Professor, Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences Cleveland State University Cleveland, Ohio Richard M. Walton Professor of Physics (Retired) Rocky Mountain College Billings, Montana Richard T. Ward, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Alpine and Forest Ecology Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado James H. Warner, Ph.D. Ecologist Professor Emeritus, Biology University of Wisconsin - La Crosse La Crosse, Wisconsin Peter Warner, M.A. Ecology Environmental Scientist California Department of Parks and Recreation Little River, California Stephen Wathen Ph.D. Candidate (disturbance ecology, plant community ecology, fire ecology) MS (forestry, natural resource management) Ecology Graduate Group, or natural resource management University of California Davis, California Vicki Watson, Ph.D. Professor and Watershed Ecologist University of Montana Missoula, Montana Beth Wee, Ph.D. Biologist Tulane University New Orleans, Louisiana Judith S. Weis, Ph.D. Professor or Biological Sciences Rutgers University Newark, New Jersey Michael E. Welker Research Scientist Department of Biological Sciences University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, Alabama Tom Wessels Professor, Ecology Antioch New England Graduate School Keene, New Hampshire Raymond R. White, Ph.D. Biological and Health Sciences De Anza College Cupertino, California Kathy Whiteman Department of Biology New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico Walter G. Whitford, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus New Mexico State University Senior Research Ecologist Emeritus New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico Kathleen Whitney Wildlife Biologist Ph.D. Candidate Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, California Sue Wick, Ph.D. Department of Plant Biology and Biology Program University of Minnesota St.Paul/Minneapolis, Minnesota Gary J. Wiles, M.S. Wildlife Biologist Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Olympia, Washington Cindy Deacon Williams Fisheries Biologist Headwaters Ashland, Oregon Elizabeth Williams, M.S. Biologist, Water Pollution Control Division Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Jackson, Tennessee Jack E. Williams, Ph.D. Chief Scientist Trout Unlimited Medford, Oregon Marcus Williams Ph.D. student studying evolutionary ecology New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM Scott Williamson, M.S. Invasive Species Biologist State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Forestry and Wildlife Pearl City, Hawaii Hope Woodward Ph.D. Candidate Department of Range, Wildlife, and Fisheries Management Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas Jerry Woolpy, Ph.D. Emeritus Professor of Biology Earlham College Richmond, Indiana J. Timothy Wootton, Ph.D. Professor Department of Ecology and Evolution The University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois Theresa L. Wusterbarth, M.S. Ph.D. Candidate Department of Biological Sciences Northern Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois Ruth D. Yanai, Ph.D. Associate Professor SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry Syracuse, New York Thomas M. Yuill, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, Wildlife Ecology University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin

*Affiliations listed for identification purposes only. Signatories as of August 1, 2006.

Selected references: Beschta R. L., J. J. Rhodes, J. B. Kauffman, R. E. Gresswell, G. W. Minshall, J. R. Karr, D. A. Perry, F. R. Hauer, and C. A. Frissell. 2004. Postfire management on forested public lands of the western United States. Conservation Biology 18:957–967.

DellaSala, D. A., G. Nagle, R. Fairbanks, D. Odion, J. Williams, J. R. Karr, C. Frissell, and T. Ingalsbee. 2006. The facts and myths of post-fire management: a case study of the Biscuit fire, southwest Oregon. Unpublished Report, World Wildlife Fund, Klamath-Siskiyou Program, 116 Lithia Way, Ashland, Oregon.

Dombeck, M., J. E. Williams, and C. A. Wood. 2004. Wildfire policy and public lands: integrating scientific understanding with social concerns across landscapes. Conservation Biology 18:883-889.

Donato, D. C., J. B. Fontaine, J. L. Campbell, W. D. Robinson, J. B. Kauffman, and B. E. Law. 2006. Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk. Science 311:352.

Franklin, J. F., and J. Agee. 2003. Scientific issues and national forest fire policy: forging a science-based national forest fire policy. Issues in Science and Technology 20:59-66.

Karr, J. R., J. J. Rhodes, G. W. Minshall, F. R. Hauer, R. L. Beschta, C. A. Frissell, and D. A. Perry. 2004. The effects of postfire salvage logging on aquatic ecosystems in the American West. Bioscience 54:1029-1033

Lindenmayer, D. B, D. R. Foster, J. F. Franklin, M. L. Hunter, R. F. Noss, F. A. Schmeigelow, and D. Perry. 2004. Salvage harvesting policies after natural disturbance. Science 303:1303.

Turner, M. G., W. H. Romme, and D. B. Tinker. 2003. Surprises and lessons from the 1998 Yellowstone Fires. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1:351-358.

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