Monitoring the comeback of one of North America’s rarest wild animals
- April 2016: Court Overturns Government Refusal to Protect Wolverine
- Wolverine video from our trail camera near Leavenworth!
- Cascades wolverines expanding southward
- Wolverine – Washington’s wild one by biologist Keith Aubry
- Annual Report on Wolverines
- More on wolverines from WDFW
We’re Standing Strong for Wolverines
Even with less than 300 wolverines in the continental U.S., and a direct threat from climate change, in August 2014 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service overruled advice from its own biologists and abandoned proposed Endangered Species Act protections for wolverines.
That’s why we joined an Intent to Sue letter along with Earthjustice and a coalition of eight other concerned organizations to ensure the agency follows well-established science and gives wolverines protections vital to their species’ survival in the Lower 48. We filed a petition for wolverine ESA listing in 2000, and have been seeking protections ever since.
“If wolverines have a strategy it’s this: Go hard, and high and steep and never back down. Not even from the biggest grizzly and least of all from the mountain. Climb everything…. Eat everybody. Alive, dead, long dead, moose, mouse, fox, frog, it’s still warm heart or frozen bones. ~ Doug Chadwick, The Wolverine Way
Like mountain caribou, wolverines are survivors of an ice-age environment. They are threatened not only by habitat loss but by climate change, trapping, highways, and other development.
An elusive Washington native
Washington state has experienced a flurry of wolverine activity in recent years; sightings have been reported from Mount Baker to Mount Adams. Some estimates report that there may be as many three dozen wolverines living in Washington today, nearly all of them in the North Cascades between I-90 and the Canadian border.
Individual wolverines have also been documented near Mount Adams in Washington’s South Cascades and in the Selkirk Mountains of northeast Washington. A pair of wolverines was documented in recent years in the Wallowa Mountains of northeast Oregon.
Conservation Northwest’s Citizen Wildlife Monitoring Project has documented several individual wolverines in the Cascades using unique chest markings and DNA from hair snags. From 2006 to 2013, researchers from WDFW and USFWS captured ten wolverines (seven female, four male) and fitted seven with satellite collars in an effort to locate natal dens and gather data on movements. The wolverines moved extensively, established large home ranges, and some made long distance dispersal movements.
Where wolverines live
Wolverines were probably never very numerous, but following years of heavy trapping and indiscriminate poison-baiting aimed at other carnivores, they were lost from most of their U.S. historical range by the early 1900s. Today, they are thought to number just 300 in the lower 48 states.
Outside of Canada and Alaska, wolverines are now constrained to remote wilderness regions in the northern and western mountainous states, in areas like the Cascade Mountains and Rocky Mountains, where heavy snowpacks persist well into spring. Most wolverines in the Lower 48 states today live in northern Idaho and Montana.
Wolverines are fierce and long distance hunters and scavengers, covering great distances in their search for carrion, including winter killed deer, elk and mountain goats. Shy of humans, their wide-ranging travel also makes it difficult for biologists to study them. Our citizen-run remote cameras have captured remarkable recent photos of wolverines.
Female wolverines rely on deep snow for their dens, digging eight or more feet into the snow to provide warmth and shelter for kits.
Wolverines have thick dark brown fur with a honey-brown stripes traveling along each side from the shoulders to the base of the tail. One of the early indigenous names for them translated as “skunk bear.”
The largest land-based animal of the weasel family, the wolverine weighs 15 to 40 pounds. (Larger mustelids are the sea otter and giant otter.)
These awesome predators have a keen sense of smell for finding food, for example animals like mountain goats killed by avalanche, buried deep beneath the snow.
Wolverines are predominantly scavengers of carrion of large mammals (including mountain goat, deer, elk, moose, and caribou). But they also prey on marmots, ground squirrels, snowshoe hares, and other small mammals. Like coyotes and other carnivores, they will also eat insects and berries.
Wolverines are capable of taking down animals five times their own body weight when snow conditions give them a predatory advantage. They are known to chase away cougars and grizzly bears!
- Wolverines are most often solitary, except during mating season. But as we learn more about them, we see that they will hunt together occasionally and sometimes “hang with” siblings.